UK Health Security Agency has partnered with other administrations to establish Joint Biosecurity Centre. JBC develops a dynamic risk assessment methodology to classify countries and territories into red, amber, and green lists. The assessment methodology has been ratified and is being regularly updated by 4 UK CMOs and CSAs.
Green- a country whose people pose a low risk to the population of the UK for all COVID-19 strains
Red- a country whose people may be potential carriers of VOC or variant of concern.
The JBC considers the following before including any country in the red or green list: –
- severity of disease
- escape from natural immunity
- escape from vaccine-induced immunity
- effect on therapeutics
- zoonotic emergence (jumped from animal to human)
- current epidemiology
Adults who have been vaccinated in the European countries and the USA are not required to self-isolate if they arrive in England. France has also come into the amber list now.
A covid test taken three days before arrival from an amber country is mandatory. A PCR test is to be taken two days after arrival. PCR is done to ensure the person is free from Covid-19 as lateral flow and antigen tests sometimes do not give accurate results.
If people have taken vaccines, they must prove that at least two weeks have passed since they took the jab through NHS Covid pass or NHS Covid letter.
Minors, i.e., under 18 years of age, do not have to isolate self-. Children of 10 years of age are required not to take tests before travelling out of England, but they need to take the test two days from arrival. Children aged four and under four do not go through such procedures.
Most of the European countries, including Germany, are a part of the green list. People coming from these parts are not required to self-isolate upon arrival. If you are returning from a place labelled as green, you will have to follow these rules: –
- take a Covid-19 test before departing and carry proof of a negative result
- take a PCR test two days after arrival. Children under the age of 4 need not take that
- fill a passenger locator form
- you only need to stay in quarantine on return to the UK from green list countries if your PCR tests come out positive, develop Covid symptoms or travelled with someone who tested positive.
These countries are identified as high-risk posing territories. They should be visited if there is undeniable urgency. States like Pakistan, Turkey, Brazil and SA are on this list. Only a UK or Irish national or a UK resident can enter the UK after staying in red list countries in the last ten days before arrival. You have to take the test after arrival and self isolate in an approved hotel.